Objective: To evaluate factors associated with perioperative outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort of patients treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN). Methods: Data were analyzed for metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with CN at 6 tertiary academic centers from 2005 to 2019. Outcomes included: Clavien-Dindo complications, mortality, length of hospitalization, 30-day readmission rate, and time to systemic therapy. Univariate and multivariable models evaluated associations between outcomes and prognostic variables including the year of surgery. Results: A total of 1272 consecutive patients were treated with CN. Patients treated in 2015-2019 vs 2005-2009 had better performance status (P<.001), higher pathologic N stage (P =.04), more frequent lymph node dissections (P<.001), and less frequent presurgical therapy (P =.02). Patients treated in 2015-2019 vs 2005-2009 had lower overall and major complications from surgery, 22% vs 39%, P<.001% and 10% vs 16%, P =.03. Mortality at 90 days was higher for patients treated 2005-2009 vs 2015-2019; 10% vs 5%, P =.02. After multivariable analysis, surgical time period was an independent predictor of major complications and 90-day mortality following cytoreductive surgery. Conclusion: Postoperative major complications and mortality rates following CN are significantly lower in patients treated within the most recent time period.
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