Cooperative strategies to reduce ambulance diversion

Reidar Hagtvedt, Mark Ferguson, Paul Griffin, Gregory Todd Jones, Pinar Keskinocak

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

31 Scopus citations


Overcrowding in the emergency departments (ED) has led to an increase in the use of ambulance diversion (AD), during which a hospital formally is not accepting patients by ambulance. We use a number of tools to considers methods by which hospitals in a metro area may cooperate to reduce diversion, including contracts and pressure from outside regulators. The tools include a birth-death process, discrete event simulations, agent-based simulation model, and some game theory to examine the potential for cooperative strategies. We use data to suggest a functional form for the payoff of such games. We find that a centralized form of routing is needed, as voluntary cooperation does not appear to be robust in the presence of noise or strategic behavior, and ethical considerations also have a significant impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2009 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2009
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 2009
Event2009 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2009 - Austin, TX, United States
Duration: Dec 13 2009Dec 16 2009

Publication series

NameProceedings - Winter Simulation Conference
ISSN (Print)0891-7736


Other2009 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2009
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityAustin, TX

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications


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