Crab: The standard X-ray candle with all (modern) X-ray satellites

M. G.F. Kirsch, U. G. Briel, D. Burrows, S. Campana, G. Cusumano, K. Ebisawa, M. J. Freyberg, M. Guainazzi, F. Haberl, K. Jahoda, J. Kaastra, P. Kretschmar, S. Larsson, P. Lubinski, K. Mori, P. Plucinsky, A. M.T. Pollock, R. Rothschild, S. Sembay, J. WilmsM. Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Various X-ray satellites have used the Crab as a standard candle to perform their calibrations in the past. The calibration of XMM-Newton, however, is independent of the Crab nebula, because this object has not been used to adjust spectral calibration issues. In 2004 a number of special observations were performed to measure the spectral parameters and the absolute flux of the Crab with XMM-Newton's EPIC-pn CCD camera. We describe the results of the campaign in detail and compare them with data of four current missions (Integral, Swift, Chandra, RXTE) and numerous previous missions (ROSAT, EXOSAT, Beppo-SAX, ASCA, Ginga, Einstein, Mir-HEXE).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number589803
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2005
EventUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XIV - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 1 2005Aug 3 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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