Creep-Enabled 3D Solid-State Lithium-Metal Battery

Ziqiang Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Yuming Chen, Kai Pei, Yiu Wing Mai, Sulin Zhang, Ju Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Existing all-solid-state Li-metal batteries suffer attacks by the chemically aggressive and mechanically stressful Li metal. Li metal is a soft crystal and may exhibit either displacive or diffusive deformation. Here, we describe a class of all-solid-state Li-metal batteries enabled by 3D porous Li-metal hosts made of electrochemically stable mixed Li-ion and electronic conductor (MIEC) and electronic and Li-ion insulators (ELI). Within 3D open porous MIEC/ELI structure, Li metal advances and retracts via interfacial diffusional creep as an “incompressible working fluid” with fast stress relaxation and minimal contact with a solid electrolyte (SE), thereby significantly improving the electrochemomechanical stability. In situ transmission electron microscopy corroborated with thermodynamic analyses offers design principles in materials, sizes, and interfaces of the 3D porous MIEC/ELI structures, which are applicable to other alkali-metal batteries. The successful construction of a creep-enabled battery engine opens a new avenue toward high-density, electrochemically and mechanically robust all-solid-state Li-metal batteries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2878-2892
Number of pages15
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 5 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Materials Chemistry


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