Cross-Cultural and Gender Invariance of Transdiagnostic Processes in the United States and Singapore

Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G. Newman, Ryan Y. Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The Research Domain Criteria define cognitive and emotional processes (e.g., rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, emotion dysregulation) as key transdiagnostic elements of psychopathology. However, there is currently a dearth of construct equivalence studies on measures of these processes. We thus aimed to validate the latent structures of five transdiagnostic constructs using established and newer measures: two-factor Rumination–Reflection Questionnaire, six-factor Perseverative Cognitions Questionnaire, two-factor Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, three-factor Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3, two-factor Cognitive and Behavioral Processes Questionnaire (CBPQ). Measurement equivalence was examined across 292 American and 144 Singaporean undergraduates. Cross-cultural confirmatory factor analyses revealed strict invariance for all measures, with interfactor association differences on the Perseverative Cognitions Questionnaire and CBPQ. Across gender, full invariance was found on all measures except the CBPQ. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)485-502
Number of pages18
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Cross-Cultural and Gender Invariance of Transdiagnostic Processes in the United States and Singapore'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this