The interplay between strongly correlated liquid and crystal phases for two-dimensional electrons exposed to a high transverse magnetic field is of fundamental interest. Through the nonperturbative fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method, we determine the phase diagram of the Wigner crystal in the ν-κ plane, where ν is the filling factor and κ is the strength of Landau-level (LL) mixing. The phase boundary is seen to exhibit a striking ν dependence, with the states away from the magic filling factors ν=n/(2pn+1) being much more susceptible to crystallization due to Landau-level mixing than those at ν=n/(2pn+1). Our results explain the qualitative difference between the experimental behaviors observed in n- and p-doped gallium arsenide quantum wells and, in particular, the existence of an insulating state for ν<1/3 and also for 1/3<ν<2/5 in low-density p-doped systems. We predict that, in the vicinity of ν=1/5 and ν=2/9, increasing LL mixing causes a transition not into an ordinary electron Wigner crystal, but rather into a strongly correlated crystal of composite fermions carrying two vortices.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Physics and Astronomy