Crystallization of polyamide 11 during injection molding

Katalee Jariyavidyanont, Jason L. Williams, Alicyn M. Rhoades, Ines Kühnert, Walter Focke, René Androsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The semicrystalline morphology of injection moldings of polyamide 11 (PA 11) prepared using mold temperatures of 25, 50, and 80°C was investigated. Regardless of the mold temperature, position-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM) revealed presence of poor/imperfect α-crystals with an almost hexagonal arrangement of molecular stems in a nonspherulitic superstructure in the skin, and formation of α-crystals and spherulites in the core. With increasing mold temperature, the thickness of the skin layer decreased, and the perfection of α-crystals and the spherulite size in the core increased. The experimental observations are discussed in terms of predicted crystallization temperatures, with the prediction based on cooling-rate simulations for the various parts of the injection moldings using Moldflow® and analysis of crystallization of the relaxed melt using fast scanning chip calorimetry, XRD, and POM. It is shown that the structure gradient in PA 11 injection moldings can be forecast without considering the effects of shear for this particular polymer. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 58:1053–1061, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1053-1061
Number of pages9
JournalPolymer Engineering and Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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