Cs Fountain Clocks for Commercial Realizations-An Improved and Robust Design

Richard J. Hendricks, Filip Ozimek, Krzysztof Szymaniec, Bartlomiej Nagorny, Piotr Dunst, Jerzy Nawrocki, Scott Beattie, Bin Jian, Kurt Gibble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We report on the design, assembly, testing, and delivery of a series of new cesium fountain primary frequency standards built through commercial and scientific collaboration with international users. The new design, based on proven National Physical Laboratory solutions, improves reliability, simplicity of operation, and transportability. The complete system consists of a novel physics package, a specially developed optical package, and dedicated electronics for system control. We present results showing that despite their simplified and more compact design, the new fountains have state-of-the-art performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robust long-term operation. With a sufficiently low-noise local oscillator, they are capable of reaching a short-term stability below 3 × 10 -14 (1 s) and have potential accuracy in the low 10 -16 range, similar to the best cesium fountains currently in operation. This cost-effective solution could be used to increase the availability of accurate frequency references and timescales and provide redundancy in critical locations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8485663
Pages (from-to)624-631
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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