Current Status of the Female Athlete Triad: Update and Future Directions

Mary Jane De Souza, Kristen J. Koltun, Clara V. Etter, Emily A. Southmayd

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: This review provides an update on the primary clinical sequelae of the Female Athlete Triad. Recent Findings: Scientific advancements have contributed to improve understanding of Triad-related conditions, including leptin’s role as a potential neuroendocrine link between energy status and reproductive function. Use of finite element analysis of HRpQCT imaging has provided a more accurate assessment of bone geometry and bone strength and may be clinically relevant. New perspectives aimed at developing and implementing a multi-disciplinary, personalized approach in the prevention and early treatment of triad-related symptoms are provided. Summary: The Female Athlete Triad is a multi-dimensional condition that affects active women across the lifespan. Energy availability impacts reproductive function and bone with implications for health and performance. Understanding the contributions of each individual component as well as their interconnected effects is necessary for progression and expansion of the Triad literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)577-587
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Osteoporosis Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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