Daily conformity drinking motivations are associated with increased odds of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks

Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39 years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40 days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-106
Number of pages5
JournalAddictive Behaviors
StatePublished - Apr 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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