Decomposing the Origin of TeV-PeV Emission from the Galactic Plane: Implications of Multimessenger Observations

Ke Fang, Kohta Murase

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High-energy neutrino and γ-ray emission has been observed from the Galactic plane, which may come from individual sources and/or diffuse cosmic rays. We evaluate the contribution of these two components through the multimessenger connection between neutrinos and γ-rays in hadronic interactions. We derive maximum fluxes of neutrino emission from the Galactic plane using γ-ray catalogs, including 4FGL, HGPS, 3HWC, and 1LHAASO, and measurements of the Galactic diffuse emission by Tibet ASγ and LHAASO. We find that the IceCube Galactic neutrino flux is larger than the contribution from all resolved sources when excluding promising leptonic sources such as pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and TeV halos. Our result indicates that the Galactic neutrino emission is likely dominated by the diffuse emission by the cosmic-ray sea and unresolved hadronic γ-ray sources. In addition, the IceCube flux is comparable to the sum of the flux of nonpulsar sources and the LHAASO diffuse emission especially above ∼30 TeV. This implies that the LHAASO diffuse emission may dominantly originate from hadronic interactions, either as the truly diffuse emission or unresolved hadronic emitters. Future observations of neutrino telescopes and air-shower γ-ray experiments in the Southern hemisphere are needed to accurately disentangle the source and diffuse emission of the Milky Way.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL6
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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