Dense cores in galaxies out to z = 2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/candels fields

Pieter G. Van Dokkum, Rachel Bezanson, Arjen Van Der Wel, Erica June Nelson, Ivelina Momcheva, Rosalind E. Skelton, Katherine E. Whitaker, Gabriel Brammer, Charlie Conroy, Natascha M.Förster Schreiber, Mattia Fumagalli, Mariska Kriek, Ivo Labbé, Joel Leja, Danilo Marchesini, Adam Muzzin, Pascal Oesch, Stijn Wuyts

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106 Scopus citations


The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among the most intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper,we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellar mass >3 × 1010 M inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D-HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2-3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5-6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from 50% at z = 2.5 to 15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M 1 kpc > 3 × 1010 M ̇make up 0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%-20% at z 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of 1011 M of gas into stars within 1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number45
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 10 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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