Background: JUUL is a popular electronic cigarette (e-cig) that is capable of delivering nicotine similarly to a cigarette. While known to deliver high doses of nicotine, there is little systematic evidence to show how the nicotine delivery of JUUL translates to user dependence. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate self-reported dependence of JUUL users and examine the relationship of dependence to user behaviors. Methods: Current JUUL users were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete an online survey about their use of JUUL. Participants were asked to complete the Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index (PSECDI) and to answer questions about their use patterns and other tobacco use. Means and frequencies were used to describe the sample. A linear regression model was used to predict user dependence. Results: Participants (n = 76) were 65.4% male with a mean age of 31.9 (SD = 8.3) years. The mean PSECDI score was 7.8 (SD = 4.2) and ranged from no (15.8%) to high (14.5%) dependence. Overall predictors of a greater PSECDI score included reporting ever stealth vaping (β = 2.8, p <.01) and reporting greater use days in the past 30 (β = 3.5, p <.01). Conclusions: On average, JUUL users reported low to medium nicotine dependence on the PSECDI. JUUL user dependence may be more similar to e-cig user dependence than cigarette smoker dependence. These preliminary findings should be followed up in studies of larger samples of Juul users, collecting multiple measures of dependence, as well as biomarkers of nicotine intake (e.g. cotinine).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-66
Number of pages6
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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