Deposit geometry and oxygen concentration spatial variations due to composition change in printed functionally graded components

J. S. Zuback, G. L. Knapp, T. A. Palmer, T. DebRoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Functionally graded materials (FGMs) with site specific chemical composition are commonly manufactured by directed energy deposition (DED). Although previous work fabricated an FGM with a compositional variation between a ferritic and austenitic alloy, difficulties arose due to variations in deposit shape with composition change. This problem also occurs for FGMs in literature; however, unlike other cases, the thermophysical properties of these two alloys were similar throughout the build. Here, we investigate the role of chemical composition and surface-active elements on deposit geometry during the manufacture of FGMs by laser DED. Single-track experiments for the relevant FGM compositions are analyzed with results from a well-tested, three-dimensional, transient numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model and thermodynamic calculations. Experiments showed deposit shape varied as a function of composition for constant laser power and scan speed. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the oxygen solubility in the fusion zone varied significantly for each composition used for the FGM. Numerical modeling revealed that the change in fluid flow caused by Marangoni convection due to dissolved oxygen in the fusion zone were mainly responsible for the changes in deposit shape observed in experiments. Because oxygen can be introduced into the fusion zone through the feedstock as well as the surrounding atmosphere, these findings elucidate a previously unconsidered aspect of process control during DED fabrication of FGMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number120526
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - Jan 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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