Depression and executive functioning bidirectionally impair one another across 9 years: Evidence from within-person latent change and cross-lagged models

Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G. Newman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Scar and vulnerability models assert that increased psychopathology may predict subsequent executive functioning (EF) deficits (and vice versa) over protracted timescales, yet most prior work on this topic has been cross-sectional. Thus, we tested the within- and between-person relations between EF, depression, and anxiety. Methods. Older adult participants (n = 856) were assessed across four waves, approximately 2 years apart. Performance-based EF and caregiver-rated symptom measures were administered. Bivariate latent change score and random-intercept cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results. Within persons, random-intercept cross-lagged panel models revealed that prior greater depression forecasted lower subsequent EF, and vice versa (d = -0.292 vs. -0.292). Bivariate dual latent change score models showed that within-person rise in depression predicted EF decreases, and vice versa (d = -0.245 vs. -0.245). No within-person, cross-lagged, EF-anxiety relations emerged. Further, significant negative between-person EF-symptom relations were observed (d = -0.264 to -0.395). Conclusion. Prospective, within-person findings offer some evidence for developmental scar and vulnerability models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere43
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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