This paper extends the use of virtual constraints and hybrid zero dynamics (HZD), a successful control strategy for point-foot bipeds, to the design of controllers for planar curved foot bipeds. Although the rolling contact constraint at the foot-ground interface increases complexity somewhat, the measure of local stability remains a function of configuration only, and a closed-form solution still determines the existence of a periodic orbit. The formulation is validated in experiment using the planar five-link biped ERNIE. While gaits designed for point feet yielded stable walking when ERNIE was equipped with curved feet, errors in both desired speed and joint tracking were significantly larger than for gaits designed for the correct radius curved feet. Thus, HZD-based control of this biped is shown to be robust to some modeling error in the foot radius, but at the same time, to require consideration of foot radius to achieve predictably reliable walking gaits. Additionally, under HZD-based control, this biped walked with lower specific energetic cost of transport and joint tracking errors for matched curved foot gait design and hardware compared to matched point-foot gait design and hardware.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Modeling and Simulation
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Artificial Intelligence
- Applied Mathematics