Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80% of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry