Designing heterogeneous porous tissue scaffolds for additive manufacturing processes

A. K.M. Khoda, Ibrahim T. Ozbolat, Bahattin Koc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


A novel tissue scaffold design technique has been proposed with controllable heterogeneous architecture design suitable for additive manufacturing processes. The proposed layer-based design uses a bi-layer pattern of radial and spiral layers consecutively to generate functionally gradient porosity, which follows the geometry of the scaffold. The proposed approach constructs the medial region from the medial axis of each corresponding layer, which represents the geometric internal feature or the spine. The radial layers of the scaffold are then generated by connecting the boundaries of the medial region and the layer's outer contour. To avoid the twisting of the internal channels, reorientation and relaxation techniques are introduced to establish the point matching of ruling lines. An optimization algorithm is developed to construct sub-regions from these ruling lines. Gradient porosity is changed between the medial region and the layer's outer contour. Iso-porosity regions are determined by dividing the sub-regions peripherally into pore cells and consecutive iso-porosity curves are generated using the iso-points from those pore cells. The combination of consecutive layers generates the pore cells with desired pore sizes. To ensure the fabrication of the designed scaffolds, the generated contours are optimized for a continuous, interconnected, and smooth deposition path-planning. A continuous zig-zag pattern deposition path crossing through the medial region is used for the initial layer and a biarc fitted iso-porosity curve is generated for the consecutive layer with C1 continuity. The proposed methodologies can generate the structure with gradient (linear or non-linear), variational or constant porosity that can provide localized control of variational porosity along the scaffold architecture. The designed porous structures can be fabricated using additive manufacturing processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1507-1523
Number of pages17
JournalCAD Computer Aided Design
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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