Detection of X-Ray Polarization from the Blazar 1ES 1959+650 with the Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer

Manel Errando, Ioannis Liodakis, Alan P. Marscher, Herman L. Marshall, Riccardo Middei, Michela Negro, Abel Lawrence Peirson, Matteo Perri, Simonetta Puccetti, Pazit L. Rabinowitz, Iván Agudo, Svetlana G. Jorstad, Sergey S. Savchenko, Dmitry Blinov, Ioakeim G. Bourbah, Sebastian Kiehlmann, Evangelos Kontopodis, Nikos Mandarakas, Stylianos Romanopoulos, Raphael SkalidisAnna Vervelaki, Francisco José Aceituno, Maria I. Bernardos, Giacomo Bonnoli, Víctor Casanova, Beatriz Agís-González, César Husillos, Alessandro Marchini, Alfredo Sota, Pouya M. Kouch, Elina Lindfors, Carolina Casadio, Juan Escudero, Ioannis Myserlis, Ryo Imazawa, Mahito Sasada, Yasushi Fukazawa, Koji S. Kawabata, Makoto Uemura, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Tatsuya Nakaoka, Hiroshi Akitaya, Mark Gurwell, Garrett K. Keating, Ramprasad Rao, Adam Ingram, Francesco Massaro, Lucio Angelo Antonelli, Raffaella Bonino, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Chien Ting Chen, Nicolò Cibrario, Stefano Ciprini, Alessandra De Rosa, Laura Di Gesu, Federico Di Pierro, Immacolata Donnarumma, Steven R. Ehlert, Francesco Fenu, Ephraim Gau, Vladimir Karas, Dawoon E. Kim, Henric Krawczynski, Marco Laurenti, Lindsey Lisalda, Rubén López-Coto, Grzegorz Madejski, Frédéric Marin, Andrea Marinucci, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Fabio Muleri, Luigi Pacciani, Alessandro Paggi, Pierre Olivier Petrucci, Nicole Rodriguez Cavero, Roger W. Romani, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Stefano Tugliani, Kinwah Wu, Matteo Bachetti, Luca Baldini, Wayne H. Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stefano Bianchi, Stephen D. Bongiorno, Alessandro Brez, Niccolò Bucciantini, Fiamma Capitanio, Simone Castellano, Enrico Costa, Ettore Del Monte, Niccolò Di Lalla, Alessandro Di Marco, Victor Doroshenko, Michal Dovčiak, Teruaki Enoto, Yuri Evangelista, Sergio Fabiani, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Javier A. Garcia, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Jeremy Heyl, Wataru Iwakiri, Philip Kaaret, Fabian Kislat, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak, Fabio La Monaca, Luca Latronico, Simone Maldera, Alberto Manfreda, Giorgio Matt, C. Y. Ng, Stephen L. O’Dell, Nicola Omodei, Chiara Oppedisano, Alessandro Papitto, George G. Pavlov, Melissa Pesce-Rollins, Maura Pilia, Andrea Possenti, Juri Poutanen, Brian D. Ramsey, John Rankin, Ajay Ratheesh, Oliver J. Roberts, Carmelo Sgrò, Patrick Slane, Paolo Soffitta, Gloria Spandre, Douglas A. Swartz, Toru Tamagawa, Roberto Taverna, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn F. Tennant, Nicholas E. Thomas, Francesco Tombesi, Alessio Trois, Sergey S. Tsygankov, Roberto Turolla, Jacco Vink, Martin C. Weisskopf, Fei Xie, Silvia Zane

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Abstract

Observations of linear polarization in the 2-8 keV energy range with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) explore the magnetic field geometry and dynamics of the regions generating nonthermal radiation in relativistic jets of blazars. These jets, particularly in blazars whose spectral energy distribution peaks at X-ray energies, emit X-rays via synchrotron radiation from high-energy particles within the jet. IXPE observations of the X-ray-selected BL Lac-type blazar 1ES 1959+650 on 2022 May 3-4 showed a significant linear polarization degree of Πx = 8.0% ± 2.3% at an electric-vector position angle ψ x = 123° ± 8°. However, on 2022 June 9-12, only an upper limit of Πx ≤ 5.1% could be derived (at the 99% confidence level). The degree of optical polarization at that time, ΠO ∼ 5%, is comparable to the X-ray measurement. We investigate possible scenarios for these findings, including temporal and geometrical depolarization effects. Unlike some other X-ray-selected BL Lac objects, there is no significant chromatic dependence of the measured polarization in 1ES 1959+650, and its low X-ray polarization may be attributed to turbulence in the jet flow with dynamical timescales shorter than 1 day.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume963
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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