Development and model-based transparency analysis of an Internet-distributed hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform

Tulga Ersal, Mark Brudnak, Ashwin Salvi, Jeffrey L. Stein, Zoran Filipi, Hosam K. Fathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


This paper summarizes efforts to integrate, for the first time, two geographically dispersed hardware-in-the-loop simulation setups over the Internet in an observer-free way for an automotive application. The two setups are the engine-in-the-loop simulation setup at the University of Michigan (UM) in Ann Arbor, MI, USA, and the driver-in-the-loop ride motion simulator at the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, MI, USA. The goal of such integration is to increase the fidelity of experiments and to enable concurrent geographically dispersed systems engineering. First, experiments with the actual hardware are presented. The concept of transparency is discussed, and the infeasibility of performing a baseline experiment with ideally integrated hardware is presented as a challenge to characterize the transparency of the experimental setup. This motivates the second half of the paper, in which a model-based approach is taken to analyze the transparency of the system. The conclusion is that an observer-free solution is feasible for integrating the two pieces of hardware over the Internet in a transparent manner, even if the nominal delay is increased by four times. It is also found that different signals in the system can exhibit different levels of transparency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-29
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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