Development and validation of a racial discrimination measure for Cambodian American adolescents

Cindy C. Sangalang, Angela C.C. Chen, Stephen S. Kulis, Scott T. Yabiku

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure's validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p <.05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-65
Number of pages10
JournalAsian American Journal of Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Psychology


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