Development and Validation of Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detecting Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in Cattle, Swine, and Chicken

Abhinay Gontu, Erika A. Marlin, Santhamani Ramasamy, Sabarinath Neerukonda, Gayatri Anil, Jasmine Morgan, Meysoon Quraishi, Chen Chen, Veda Sheersh Boorla, Ruth H. Nissly, Padmaja Jakka, Shubhada K. Chothe, Abirami Ravichandran, Nishitha Kodali, Saranya Amirthalingam, Lindsey Labella, Kathleen Kelly, Pazhanivel Natesan, Allen M. Minns, Randall M. RossiJacob R. Werner, Ernest Hovingh, Scott E. Lindner, Deepanker Tewari, Vivek Kapur, Kurt J. Vandegrift, Costas D. Maranas, Meera Surendran Nair, Suresh V. Kuchipudi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Multiple domestic and wild animal species are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cattle and swine are susceptible to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection. The unchecked transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in animal hosts could lead to virus adaptation and the emergence of novel variants. In addition, the spillover and subsequent adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in livestock could significantly impact food security as well as animal and public health. Therefore, it is essential to monitor livestock species for SARS-CoV-2 spillover. We developed and optimized species-specific indirect ELISAs (iELISAs) to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cattle, swine, and chickens using the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen. Serum samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were used to determine the cut-off threshold. RBD hyperimmunized sera from cattle (n = 3), swine (n = 6), and chicken (n = 3) were used as the positive controls. The iELISAs were evaluated compared to a live virus neutralization test using cattle (n = 150), swine (n = 150), and chicken (n = 150) serum samples collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The iELISAs for cattle, swine, and chicken were found to have 100% sensitivity and specificity. These tools facilitate the surveillance that is necessary to quickly identify spillovers into the three most important agricultural species worldwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1358
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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