Background: Children's hospitals within larger hospitals (CH/LH) have the specific clinical advantage of easily facilitated collaboration between adult and children's surgeons. These collaborations, which we have termed hybrid surgical offerings (HSOs) are often required for disease processes requiring interventions that fall outside the customary practice of children's surgeons. Formal models to describe or evaluate these practices are lacking. Methods: HSOs within a CH/LH were identified. Principles of systems-engineering were used to develop a standardized model (Children's Hybrid Enhanced Surgical Services [CHESS]) to describe and evaluate HSOs. Face validity was established via unstructured interviews of CH leaders and HSO surgeons. Areas for improved system-wide standardization and programmatic development were identified. Results: HSOs were identified in collaboration with adult bariatric, minimally invasive, advanced endoscopic, endocrine, thoracic, and orthopedic trauma surgical services. The CHESS framework encompassed: 1) quality improvement metrics, 2) credentialing and oversight, 3) transitions of care, 4) pediatric family-centered care, 5) maintenance of the cycle of expertise, 6) continuing medical education, 7) scholarship. While HSOs fulfilled the majority of aforementioned programmatic domains across all six HSO-providing services, areas for improvement included maintaining a cycle of expertise (33%), quality improvement metrics (50%), and pediatric family-centered care (66%). Additional noted advantages included faster translation of adult innovation to pediatric care and facilitation of emergency interdisciplinary care. Conclusion: Formal evaluation of HSOs is necessary to standardize and improve the quality of children's surgical care. Development of a structured framework such as CHESS addresses gaps in quality oversight and provides a basis for performance improvement, patient safety, and programmatic development.
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