There are approximately 900 million farmers and 150 million hectares cultivated area in China. Agricultural productions, especially crop harvesting are still labor-intensive processes. For the world's largest group of consumers, advanced harvesting technologies and agricultural mechanization are in high demand to keep up with its fast-growing economy. In this paper, the development of agricultural machine systems and current status of agricultural productions in China were overviewed using national statistical data. Market potential and machine systems needed were then discussed. Description was focused on typical products of harvesting machines used in agricultural production. In-depth discussion included status in research, design, and manufacture of agricultural machines. Specifications and special applications of harvesting machines were presented using some selected typical machine products. In addition, the problems and needs in Chinese agricultural machinery were presented. Opportunities and trend of future development in the area of harvesting machines were described as well.