Development of the free time motivation scale for adolescents

Cheryl K. Baldwin, Linda L. Caldwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


A new self- report measure of adolescent free time motivation (FTMS-A) based in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) has been developed. The scale measures five forms of motivation (amotivation, external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic motivation) and is appropriate for use with young adolescents (ages 12-15). Using confirmatory factor analysis, examination of each of the motivation subscales indicated minimally acceptable levels of fit. The test of the overall model without modification was also minimally acceptable. The deletion of two items improved the fit and provides preliminary evidence of the validity of the FTMS-A, however, future replication of this finding is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-151
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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