Activation of the immune costimulatory molecule cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) in Müller glia has been implicated in the initiation of diabetes-induced retinal inflammation. Results from previous studies support that CD40 protein expression is elevated in Müller glia of diabetic mice; however, the mechanisms responsible for this increase have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that diabetes augments translation of the Cd40 mRNA. Mice receiving thiamet G (TMG), an inhibitor of the O-GlcNAc hydrolase O-GlcNAcase, exhibited enhanced retinal protein O-GlcNAcylation and increased Cd40 mRNA translation. TMG administration also promoted Cd40 mRNA association with Müller cell–specific ribosomes isolated from the retina of RiboTag mice. Similar effects on O-GlcNAcylation and Cd40 mRNA translation were also observed in the retina of a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In cultured cells, TMG promoted sequestration of the cap-binding protein eIF4E (eukaryotic translation in initiation factor 4E) by 4E-BP1 (eIF4E-binding protein 1) and enhanced cap-independent Cd40 mRNA translation as assessed by a bicistronic reporter that contained the 59-UTR of the Cd40 mRNA. Ablation of 4E-BP1/2 prevented the increase in Cd40 mRNA translation in TMG-exposed cells, and expression of a 4E-BP1 variant that constitutively sequesters eIF4E promoted reporter activity. Extending on the cell culture results, we found that in contrast to WT mice, diabetic 4E-BP1/2–deficient mice did not exhibit enhanced retinal Cd40 mRNA translation and failed to up-regulate expression of the inflammatory marker nitric-oxide synthase 2. These findings support a model wherein diabetes-induced O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1 promotes Cd40 mRNA translation in Müller glia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology