Differences in Medication Use by Gender and Race in Hospitalized Persons Living with Dementia

Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Ashley Kuzmik, Rachel McPherson, Brittany Drazich, Nayeon Kim, Shijun Zhu, Chris L. Wells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to describe differences in treatment of White versus Black older adults, males versus females, and those living at home, assisted living, or nursing home communities with regard to the use of psychotropic, pain, and cardiovascular medications. Baseline data from the first 352 participants in the study, implementation of Function-Focused Care for Acute Care Using the Evidence Integration Triangle, were used. Data included age, gender, race, comorbidities, admission diagnosis, and living location prior to hospitalization, the Saint Louis University Mental Status exam, the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale, the Confusion Assessment Method, and medications prescribed. Generalized linear mixed model analyses were done, controlling for race or gender (depending on which comparison analysis was being done), age, cognitive status, hospital, delirium, and comorbidities. Medication use was significantly higher for White older adults, compared to Black older adults, for antidepressants, anxiolytics, non-opioid pain medications, and opioids and lower for antihypertensives. Females received more anxiolytics than their male counterparts. There were differences in medication use by living location with regard to non-opioid pain medication, antipsychotics, statins, and anticoagulants. The findings provide some current information about differences in medication use across groups of individuals and can help guide future research and hypothesis testing for approaches to minimizing these differences in treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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