Children infected with HIV-l may exhibit neurological, neurodevelopmental, and neuropsychological abnormalities. This chapter discusses the study of the relationship between ethnicity and neuropsychological outcome in two specific domains of functioning (language and speed of information processing) in a group of HIV-l + children. Ethnicity in this study was defined on the basis of parental report regarding perceived ethnicity and primary language use. In addition, in an attempt to reduce the effects of other putative confounding factors capable of accounting for differences in neuropsychological outcome, children in either ethnic group were excluded from participation in this study if they met stringent and specific exclusion criteria. Studies using large birth cohorts of children from various ethnic backgrounds also should be conducted while controlling for potential confounds not examined in this study to determine the effects of such variables on neuropsychological performance.
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