Digital Light Processing 4D Printing of Poloxamer Micelles for Facile Fabrication of Multifunctional Biocompatible Hydrogels as Tailored Wearable Sensors

Wen Shi, Seonmin Jang, Mitchell A. Kuss, Olawale A. Alimi, Bo Liu, Jayden Palik, Li Tan, Mena Asha Krishnan, Yifei Jin, Cunjiang Yu, Bin Duan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The lack of both digital light processing (DLP) compatible and biocompatible photopolymers, along with inappropriate material properties required for wearable sensor applications, substantially hinders the employment of DLP 3D printing in the fabrication of multifunctional hydrogels. Herein, we discovered and implemented a photoreactive poloxamer derivative, Pluronic F-127 diacrylate, which overcomes these limitations and is optimized to achieve DLP 3D printed micelle-based hydrogels with high structural complexity, resolution, and precision. In addition, the dehydrated hydrogels exhibit a shape-memory effect and are conformally attached to the geometry of the detection point after rehydration, which implies the 4D printing characteristic of the fabrication process and is beneficial for the storage and application of the device. The excellent cytocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility further strengthen the potential application of the poloxamer micelle-based hydrogels as a platform for multifunctional wearable systems. After processing them with a lithium chloride (LiCl) solution, multifunctional conductive ionic hydrogels with antifreezing and antiswelling properties along with good transparency and water retention are easily prepared. As capacitive flexible sensors, the DLP 3D printed micelle-based hydrogel devices exhibit excellent sensitivity, cycling stability, and durability in detecting multimodal deformations. Moreover, the DLP 3D printed conductive hydrogels are successfully applied as real-time human motion and tactile sensors with satisfactory sensing performances even in a −20 °C low-temperature environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7580-7595
Number of pages16
JournalACS nano
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 12 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy

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