Direct observation of phase transformations in the simulated heat-affected zone of a 9Cr martensitic steel

Peter Mayr, Todd A. Palmer, John W. Elmer, Eliot D. Specht

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10 Scopus citations


An experimental test melt of a boron alloyed 9Cr-3W-3Co-V,Nb steel for high temperature applications in the thermal power generation industry was produced by vacuum induction melting. This grade of steel typically displays a homogeneous tempered martensitic microstructure in the as-received, i.e. normalised and tempered, condition. However, after welding, this microstructure is significantly altered, resulting in a loss of its desired properties. The phase transformations during simulated thermal cycles typical of those experienced in the weld heat-affected zone were directly observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. Heating rates of 10 K s-1 and 100 Ks-1 up to a peak temperature of 1300°C are investigated here. The final microstructures observed after both simulated weld thermal cycles are primarily composed of martensite with approximately 4 % retained delta ferrite and 4 % retained austenite, by volume. With the temporal resolution of the in-situ X-ray diffraction technique, phase transformations from tempered martensite to austenite to delta ferrite during heating and to martensite during cooling were monitored. With this technique, the evolution of the final microstructure through both heating and cooling is monitored, providing additional context to the microstructural observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-386
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Materials Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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