Polymeric electromechanical transducers were identified and based on various novel ion-exchange membranes bonded between two conductive metal layer electrodes. Imposed deformations and small electric fields allowed both sensing and actuation applications. Soft actuator materials produced large bending displacements when only a small voltage was applied across the membrane electrode assembly. Charge motion from one pole to the other pole produced electromechanical coupling effects in the ionic materials through the electric double layer. By increasing the surface area of the electrodes, thereby increasing the capacitance, it was shown that the motion of charges and actuator performance increases, thus indicating a strong correlation between the capacitance and charge motion/performance. Manipulation of the morphology of the electrodes by enhancing the capacitance and effective interfacial area of the conductive electrodes produced major effects on performance and transduction. Transducer actuation performance at lower frequencies was enhanced by employing a novel electrode fabrication technique which could utilize Ru O2 instead of platinum. At higher frequencies, mass transport and interfacial resistance appeared to play pivotal roles in actuator performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry