Division of labor among gay fathers: Associations with parent, couple, and child adjustment

Samantha L. Tornello, Bettina N. Sonnenberg, Charlotte J. Patterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The present study examined division of labor among gay fathers, tested 3 major theories of division of labor (relative resource theory, time constraint theory, and life course theory), and evaluated associations between discrepancies among current and ideal divisions of labor, on the one hand, and parent well-being, couple functioning, and child adjustment, on the other. The sample consisted of 335 self-described gay fathers who took part in Wave 1 and 176 of those men who took part in Wave 2 of an Internet-based study. All of the participants identified themselves as gay fathers who currently had male partners and at least 1 child under 18 years of age residing in their home. Results showed that gay fathers reported having and desiring egalitarian divisions of labor and that time constraint theory and an aspect of life course theory were supported. Lastly, discrepancies between actual and ideal division of labor were associated with parental well-being and couple functioning but not children's adjustment. The results add to understanding of the role that division of labor plays in parent, couple, and child adjustment among gay father families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-375
Number of pages11
JournalPsychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gender Studies
  • General Psychology


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