Dopamine DRD4 receptor polymorphism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

D. C. Rowe, C. Stever, L. N. Giedinghagen, Jmc Gard, H. H. Cleveland, S. T. Terris, J. H. Mohr, S. Sherman, A. Abramowitz, I. D. Waldman

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195 Scopus citations


A polymorphism in the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) has been related to novelty seeking, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The variability is in a 48-bp repeat in exon 3 of the gene (a transmembrane region). This study examined the relation of the 7-repeat (ie, high-risk) allele to questionnaire-based diagnoses of ADHD (both combined type and inattentive type). Several positive findings were obtained for ADHD-inattentive type. In an association test, the 7-repeat allele occurred more frequently in children with ADHD-inattentive type than in control children. In genetically discordant sibling pairs, the sibling with a greater number of 7-repeat alleles displayed more inattentive symptoms than his/her co-sibling with fewer 7-repeat alleles. For ADHD-combined type, the 7-repeat allele frequency was greater than that in the control sample. However, a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test yielded no significant linkage of the 7-repeat allele with hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. A categorical TDT yielded no significant findings, but the number of transmissions was small, especially for ADHD-inattentive type.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular Psychiatry
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Molecular Biology


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