Drawn-on-Skin Sensors from Fully Biocompatible Inks toward High-Quality Electrophysiology

Shubham Patel, Faheem Ershad, Jimmy Lee, Lourdes Chacon-Alberty, Yifan Wang, Marco A. Morales-Garza, Arturo Haces-Garcia, Seonmin Jang, Lei Gonzalez, Luis Contreras, Aman Agarwal, Zhoulyu Rao, Grace Liu, Igor R. Efimov, Yu Shrike Zhang, Min Zhao, Roslyn Rivkah Isseroff, Alamgir Karim, Abdelmotagaly Elgalad, Weihang ZhuXiaoyang Wu, Cunjiang Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The need to develop wearable devices for personal health monitoring, diagnostics, and therapy has inspired the production of innovative on-demand, customizable technologies. Several of these technologies enable printing of raw electronic materials directly onto biological organs and tissues. However, few of them have been thoroughly investigated for biocompatibility of the raw materials on the cellular, tissue, and organ levels or with different cell types. In addition, highly accurate multiday in vivo monitoring using such on-demand, in situ fabricated devices has yet to be done. Presented herein is the first fully biocompatible, on-skin fabricated electronics for multiple cell types and tissues that can capture electrophysiological signals with high fidelity. While also demonstrating improved mechanical and electrical properties, the drawn-on-skin ink retains its properties under various writing conditions, which minimizes the variation in electrical performance. Furthermore, the drawn-on-skin ink shows excellent biocompatibility with cardiomyocytes, neurons, mice skin tissue, and human skin. The high signal-to-noise ratios of the electrophysiological signals recorded with the DoS sensor over multiple days demonstrate its potential for personalized, long-term, and accurate electrophysiological health monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2107099
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 8 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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