Dynamical black holes: Approach to the final state

Abhay Ashtekar, Miguel Campiglia, Samir Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Since black holes can be formed through widely varying processes, the horizon structure is highly complicated in the dynamical phase. Nonetheless, as numerical simulations show, the final state appears to be universal, well described by the Kerr geometry. How are all these large and widely varying deviations from the Kerr horizon washed out? To investigate this issue, we introduce a well-suited notion of horizon multipole moments and equations governing their dynamics, thereby providing a coordinate- and slicing-independent framework to investigate the approach to equilibrium. In particular, our flux formulas for multipoles can be used as analytical checks on numerical simulations and, in turn, the simulations could be used to fathom possible universalities in the way black holes approach their final equilibrium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number064045
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 23 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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