Dynamical horizons and their properties

Abhay Ashtekar, Badri Krishnan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

289 Scopus citations


A detailed description of how black holes grow in full, nonlinear general relativity is presented. The starting point is the notion of dynamical horizons. Expressions of fluxes of energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves across these horizons are obtained. Fluxes are local and the energy flux is positive. A change in the horizon area is related to these fluxes. A notion of angular momentum and energy is associated with cross sections of the horizon and balance equations, analogous to those obtained by Bondi and Sachs at null infinity, are derived. These in turn lead to generalizations of the first and second laws of black hole mechanics. The relation between dynamical horizons and their asymptotic states—the isolated horizons—is discussed briefly. The framework has potential applications to numerical, mathematical, astrophysical and quantum general relativity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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