Dynamical Horizons: Energy, Angular Momentum, Fluxes, and Balance Laws

Abhay Ashtekar, Badri Krishnan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

229 Scopus citations


Dynamical horizons are considered in full, nonlinear general relativity. Expressions of fluxes of energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves across these horizons are obtained. Fluxes are local, the energy flux is positive, and change in the horizon area is related to these fluxes. The flux formulas also give rise to balance laws analogous to the ones obtained by Bondi and Sachs at null infinity and provide generalizations of the first and second laws of black-hole mechanics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number26
StatePublished - 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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