The objective of this study was to use high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing to produce functional properties in a low-fat (4.5% fat) ice cream mix similar to those seen when emulsifiers are used. Ice cream mix or serum (nonfat portion of the ice cream mix) were subjected to 200 or 400 MPa HPJ processing and compared with a non-HPJ-treated control. A similar non-HPJ-treated formulation but containing polysorbate 80 (0.075% wt/wt) was also used as a control. The mix samples were characterized in terms of their particle size, density, flow properties, stability, crystallization kinetics, and fat–protein interactions. The sample from the mix subjected to 400 MPa HPJ processing (HPJ-M-400) had increased consistency coefficient (5°C; 228 ± 102.7 mPa·s) and particle size (D[4,3]; 16.0 ± 2.5 μm) compared with the non-HPJ-treated control sample, with viscosity and particle size (volume-moment mean diameter, D[4,3]) values of 7.5 ± 0.4 mPa·s and 0.50 ± 0.1 μm, respectively. These differences were attributed to an increase in casein–fat interactions and casein–casein interactions caused by the 400 MPa HPJ treatment, which were observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and inferred from an increase in protein and fat concentrations in the sediment after ultracentrifugation. Interestingly, the density of HPJ-M-400 was also lower (0.79 ± 0.17 g/mL) than that of the control (1.04 ± 0.00 g/mL) because bubbles were trapped within these complexes. The large casein–fat complexes formed in the HPJ-M-400 sample also appeared to act as steric barriers that slowed ice crystal growth during quiescent freezing. The alterations in physiochemical properties and apparent ice crystal growth induced by the 400 MPa treatment of low-fat ice cream mix have many potential applications, including clean-label confections.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology