Effect of Microparticles on Fungal Fermentation for Fermentation-Based Product Productions

Attia Iram, Ali Özcan, Ercan Yatmaz, İrfan Turhan, Ali Demirci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Ranging from simple food ingredients to complex pharmaceuticals, value-added products via microbial fermentation have many advantages over their chemically synthesized alternatives. Some of such advantages are environment-friendly production pathways, more specificity in the case of enzymes as compared to the chemical catalysts and reduction of harmful chemicals, such as heavy metals or strong acids and bases. Fungal fermentation systems include yeast and filamentous fungal cells based on cell morphology and culture conditions. However, filamentous fungal fermentation has gained attention in the past few decades because of the diversity of microbial products and robust production of some of the most value-added commodities. This type of fungal fermentation is usually carried out by solid-state fermentation. However, solid-state fermentation poses problems during the scale-up for industrial production. Therefore, submerged fermentation for value-added products is usually preferred for scaling-up purposes. The main problem with submerged fungal fermentation is the formation of complex mycelial clumps or pellets. The formation of such pellets increases the viscosity of the media and hinders the efficient transfer of oxygen and nutrient resources in the liquid phase. The cells at the center of the clump or pellet start to die because of a shortage of resources and, thus, productivity decreases substantially. To overcome this problem, various morphological engineering techniques are being researched. One approach is the use of microparticles. Microparticles are inert particles with various size ranges that are used in fermentation. These microparticles are shown to have positive effects, such as high enzyme productivity or smaller pellets with fungal fermentation. Therefore, this review provides a background about the types of microparticles and summarizes some of the recent studies with special emphasis on the fungal morphology changes and microparticle types along with the applications of microparticles in filamentous fungal fermentations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2681
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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