Effect of TiO 2 doping on densification and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite by microwave sintering

Junfeng Nie, Jian Zhou, Xiaoguang Huang, Lin Wang, Guizhen Liu, Jiping Cheng

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32 Scopus citations


Hydroxyapatite (HAP) possesses excellent bioactivity/osteointegration properties. Nevertheless, its inferior flexural strength and fracture toughness limit its use in human weight-bearing parts. We investigated a microwave sintering technology which can be effectively used to develop titanium dioxide-hydroxyapatite (TiO 2 -HAP) ceramics with different amounts of TiO 2 (0.8,1.6,2.4,3.2,4.0,4.8,5.6 and 6.4 wt%), which contribute to extremely high flexural strength (90–130 MPa) along with a good combination of elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The results of the Rietveld refinement show that multiphase bioceramics (HAP, β-TCP) can be achieved by doping nano-TiO 2 under microwave sintering. Despite the fact that the main phases of the sintered TiO 2 -HAP ceramics are HAP and β-TCP, X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of the CaTiO 3 and CaTi 2 O 4 (OH) 2 phases. Furthermore, the sintering reactions to form these phases are discussed and the results show that an appropriate amount of nano-TiO 2 can not only effectively inhibit the growth of grain, but also change the fracture mode and increase the relative density. Finally, it is found that doping nano-TiO 2 by microwave heating is an effective technique for producing HAP/β-TCP composite load-bearing implants in clinical applications without coarsening the size of grain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13647-13655
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number11
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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