Effectiveness of a Diabetes-Focused Electronic Discharge Order Set and Postdischarge Nursing Support among Poorly Controlled Hospitalized Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

Audrey White, David Bradley, Elizabeth Buschur, Cara Harris, Jacob LaFleur, Michael Pennell, Adam Soliman, Kathleen Wyne, Kathleen Dungan

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Although the use of electronic order sets has become standard practice for inpatient diabetes management, there is limited decision support at discharge. Objective: In this study, we assessed whether an electronic discharge order set (DOS) plus nurse follow-up calls improve discharge orders and postdischarge outcomes among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a randomized, open-label, single center study that compared an electronic DOS and nurse phone calls to enhanced standard care (ESC) in hospitalized insulin-requiring patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level at 24 weeks after discharge. The secondary outcomes included the completeness and accuracy of discharge prescriptions related to diabetes. Results: This study was stopped early because of feasibility concerns related to the long-term follow-up. However, 158 participants were enrolled (DOS: n=82; ESC: n=76), of whom 155 had discharge data. The DOS group had a greater frequency of prescriptions for bolus insulin (78% vs 44%; P=.01), needles or syringes (95% vs 63%; P=.03), and glucometers (86% vs 36%; P<.001). The clarity of the orders was similar. HbA1c data were available for 54 participants in each arm at 12 weeks and for 44 and 45 participants in the DOS and ESC arms, respectively, at 24 weeks. The unadjusted difference in change in HbA1c level (DOS – ESC) was −0.6% (SD 0.4%; P=.18) at 12 weeks and −1.1% (SD 0.4%; P=.01) at 24 weeks. The adjusted difference in change in HbA1c level was −0.5% (SD 0.4%; P=.20) at 12 weeks and −0.7% (SD 0.4%; P=.09) at 24 weeks. The achievement of the individualized HbA1c target was greater in the DOS group at 12 weeks but not at 24 weeks. Conclusions: An intervention that included a DOS plus a postdischarge nurse phone call resulted in more complete discharge prescriptions. The assessment of postdischarge outcomes was limited, owing to the loss of the long-term follow-up, but it suggested a possible benefit in glucose control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere33401
JournalJMIR Diabetes
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management

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