Effectiveness of BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines against severe COVID-19 and B.1.617.2/Delta variant in India, 2021: a multi-centric hospital-based case-control study

Tarun Bhatnagar, Sirshendu Chaudhuri, Manickam Ponnaiah, Pragya D. Yadav, R. Sabarinathan, Rima R. Sahay, Faheem Ahmed, S. Aswathy, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Anil Bilimale, M. Santhosh Kumar, M. Logaraj, Uday Narlawar, C. Palanivel, Prakash Patel, Sanjay K. Rai, Vartika Saxena, Arvind Singh, Jeromie WV Thangaraj, Ashwini AgarwalYasir Alvi, Amoghashree, P. Ashok, Dinesh Babu, Yogesh Bahurupi, Sangita Bhalavi, Priyamadhaba Behera, Priyanka Pandit Biswas, Jaykaran Charan, Nishant Kumar Chauhan, K. B. Chetak, Lalit Dar, Ayan Das, R. Deepashree, Minakshi Dhar, Rahul Dhodapkar, T. S. Dipu, Mridu Dudeja, Manisha Dudhmal, Ravisekhar Gadepalli, Mahendra Kumar Garg, A. V. Gayathri, Akhil Dhanesh Goel, H. Basavana Gowdappa, Randeep Guleria, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Farzana Islam, Mannu Jain, Vineet Jain, M. Lanord Stanley Jawahar, Rajendra Joshi, Shashi Kant, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Deepjyoti Kalita, Meenakshi Khapre, Satyendra Khichar, Sarika Prabhakar Kombade, Sunil Kohli, Abhinendra Kumar, Anil Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Kiran G. Kulirankal, K. V. Leela, Triparna Majumdar, Baijayantimala Mishra, Puneet Misra, Sanjeev Misra, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra, M. Narayana Murthy, Dimpal A. Nyayanit, Manish Patel, Monika Pathania, Savita Patil, Binod Kumar Patro, Ramniwas Jalandra, Pragati Rathod, Naimesh Shah, Anita Shete, Deepak Shukla, M. Shwethashree, Smita Sinha, M. N. Sumana, Ashish Surana, Anjan Trikha, A. Tejashree, Mahalingam Venkateshan, G. Vijaykrishnan, Sarita Wadhava, Naveet Wig, Nivedita Gupta, Priya Abraham, Manoj V. Murhekar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines in January 2021. We estimated the effectiveness of these vaccines against severe COVID-19 among individuals aged ≥45 years. Methods: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case-control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients, and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for complete (2 doses ≥ 14 days) and partial (1 dose ≥ 21 days) vaccination; interval between two vaccine doses and vaccination against the Delta variant. We used the random effects logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for relevant known confounders. Results: We enrolled 1143 cases and 2541 control patients. The VE of complete vaccination was 85% (95% CI: 79-89%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 71% (95% CI: 57-81%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (94%, 95% CI: 86-97%) and BBV152/Covaxin (93%, 95% CI: 34-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages. Conclusion: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of the highly transmissible Delta variant in the second wave of the pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to reduce severe COVID-19 and further mitigate the pandemic in the country.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)693-702
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume122
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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