Effects of 4-Aminopyridine on Combined Nerve and Muscle Injury and Bone Loss

Prem Kumar Govindappa, Mashanipalya G. Jagadeeshaprasad, Peter Tortora, M. A.Hassan Talukder, John C. Elfar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: Musculoskeletal injuries are common, and peripheral nerve injury (PNI) causes significant muscle and bone loss within weeks. After PNI, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) improves functional recovery and muscle atrophy. However, it is unknown whether 4-AP has any effect on isolated traumatic muscle injury and PNI-induced bone loss. Methods: A standardized crush injury was performed on the sciatic nerve and muscles in mice, and the mice were assigned to receive normal saline or 4-AP treatment daily for 21 days. The postinjury motor and sensory function recovery was assessed, injured muscles were processed for histomorphometry, and the tibial bone was scanned for bone density. Results: 4-Aminopyridine significantly accelerated the postinjury motor and sensory function recovery, improved muscle histomorphometry, increased muscle satellite cell numbers, and shifted muscle fiber types after combined nerve and muscle injury. Importantly, the 4-AP treatment significantly reduced PNI-induced bone loss. In contrast, in the case of isolated muscle injury, 4-AP had no effect on functional recovery and bone density, but it improved muscle-specific histomorphometry to a limited extent. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential beneficial effects of 4-AP on the recovery of muscle morphology and bone density after combined muscle and nerve injury. Clinical relevance: Nerve injuries frequently involve muscle and result in rapid muscle and bone atrophy. In this scenario, 4-AP, in addition to accelerating nerve functional recovery, might work as an adjunctive agent to improve the recovery of injured muscle and attenuate PNI-induced bone loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)831.e1-831.e9
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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