Effects of placebo and flurazepam on sleep patterns in insomniac subjects

Joyce Kales, Anthony Kales, Edward O. Bixler, Elaine S. Slye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


In 12 insomniac subjects placebo had no significant effects on sleep induction, sleep maintenance, or sleep stages, while flurazepam 30 mg. produced clear-cut decreases in sleep latency, wake time after sleep onset, total wake time, and number o f wakes. The decreases were maintained throughout the drug administration period as well as on the first several withdrawal nights, indicating a carry-over effect. There was agreement between the subjective estimates of sleep and the electroencephalogram (EEG) data in terms o f both improvement in sleep induction and sleep maintenance with flurazepam and in the lack o f effects with placebo. Flurazepam produced either no change or a slight decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. There were no increases above base line following withdrawal. Stages 3 and 4 sleep decreased considerably with drug administration, this decrease being maintained during the drug withdrawal period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-697
Number of pages7
JournalClinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1971

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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