Effects of recreation trampling on natural area vegetation.

F. R. Kuss, A. R. Graefe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The injurious effects of recreational use on vegetation of natural areas is influenced by not only plant responses to the direct mechanical effects of trampling, but also by stress factors internal to the ecosystem as well as changes in the physical, chemical and biological nature of the soil medium. These effects are reviewed by tracing the dimensions of impact through selected stages in the life cycle of vascular plants beginning with seed germination and seedling establishment, growth functions after establishment, vigor and biomass production, flowering, seed production, and finally recolonization of impacted area. Major factors affecting plant responses to trampling such as life and growth form relationships to resistance, influence of habitat variables, community interactions, and the stage of ecosystem development are also discussed. -Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-183
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1985

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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