Effects of strain, disorder, and Coulomb screening on free-carrier mobility in doped cadmium oxide

Zachary T. Piontkowski, Evan L. Runnerstrom, Angela Cleri, Anthony McDonald, Jon Ihlefeld, Christopher Saltonstall, Jon Paul Maria, Thomas E. Beechem

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1 Scopus citations


The interplay of stress, disorder, and Coulomb screening dictating the mobility of doped cadmium oxide (CdO) is examined using Raman spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms driving dopant incorporation and scattering within this emerging infrared optical material. Specifically, multi-wavelength Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies are combined with electrical Hall measurements on a series of yttrium (X = Y) and indium (X = In) doped X:CdO thin-films. Hall measurements confirm n-type doping and establish carrier concentrations and mobilities. Spectral fitting along the low-frequency Raman combination bands, especially the TA+TO(X) mode, reveals that the evolution of strain and disorder within the lattice as a function of dopant concentration is strongly correlated with mobility. Coupling between the electronic and lattice environments was examined through analysis of first- and second-order longitudinal-optical phonon-plasmon coupled modes that monotonically decrease in energy and asymmetrically broaden with increasing dopant concentration. By fitting these trends to an impurity-induced Fröhlich model for the Raman scattering intensity, exciton-phonon and exciton-impurity coupling factors are quantified. These coupling factors indicate a continual decrease in the amount of ionized impurity scattering with increasing dopant concentration and are not as well correlated with mobility. This shows that lattice strain and disorder are the primary determining factors for mobility in donor-doped CdO. In aggregate, the study confirms previously postulated defect equilibrium arguments for dopant incorporation in CdO while at the same time identifying paths for its further refinement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number195105
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number19
StatePublished - Nov 21 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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