Electromagnetic modeling of near-field phase-shifting contact lithography with broadband ultraviolet illumination

Fei Wang, Katherine E. Weaver, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Mark W. Horn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Near-field phase-shifting contact lithography is modeled to characterize electromagnetic absorption in a photoresist layer with one face in contact with a quartz binary phase-shift mask. The broadband ultraviolet illumination is represented as a frequency-spectrum of normally incident plane waves. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis is carried out to determine the absorption spectrum of the photoresist layer. The specific absorption rate in the photoresist layer is calculated and examined in relation to the geometric parameters. Columnar features in the photoresist layer are of higher quality on broadband illumination in contrast to monochromatic illumination, in conformity with some recent experimental results. Feature resolution and profile are noticeably affected by the depth of the grooves in the phase-shift mask. Ideally, the feature linewidth can be less than about 100 nm for broadband illumination in the transverse-magnetic mode. These conclusions are subject to modification by the photochemistry-wavelength characteristics of the photoresist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 18 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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