Emissions of volatile organic compounds from 4D printing and associated control strategies towards workplace safety

Muyue Han, Jing Zhao, Lin Li

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


The integration of additive manufacturing technologies with stimuli-responsive shape memory materials allows the dynamic self-adaptation of fabricated parts upon exposure to external stimulations. The additional dimension of time inspires the concept of four-dimensional printing technology. However, the emerging feedstock materials and the employment of external stimuli in 4D printing are also associated with new workplace hazards and occupational health concerns. Current evaluation studies on additive manufacturing are mainly focused on the safety and health effects that originated from the part production phase and cannot be directly applied in 4D printing processes. In this study, the emissions of volatile organic compounds from stereolithography-based 4D printing process with thermo-responsive materials are targeted as the potential safety concern. Real-time total volatile organic compound monitoring is conducted during various production phases to align the emission sources with critical operating activities, including both operator interventions and machine operations. Comparative experiments are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed emission control strategies. In particular, alterations in operation procedures such as stirring speed in material mixing and post-printing stimulation method can contribute positively to air emission control during manual operations. In addition, the installation of activated carbon fiber filters inside the machine build chamber can lead to a significant reduction of air emissions during part fabrication with an overall total volatile organic compound concentration reduction of 58.91%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationManufacturing Processes; Manufacturing Systems; Nano/Micro/Meso Manufacturing; Quality and Reliability
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9780791885079
StatePublished - 2021
EventASME 2021 16th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: Jun 21 2021Jun 25 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ASME 2021 16th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2021


ConferenceASME 2021 16th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2021
CityVirtual, Online

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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