Employee injuries and convenience store robberies in selected metropolitan areas

H. E. Amandus, D. Zahm, R. Friedmann, R. B. Ruback, C. Block, J. Weiss, D. Rogan, W. Holmes, T. Bynum, D. Hoffman, R. McManus, J. Malcan, C. Wellford, D. Kessler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The number of robberies and robbery-related injuries to employees in convenience stores (C-stores) during 1992 or 1993 were estimated for selected metropolitan areas around Miami and Tampa, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Detroit, Michigan; Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Charleston, Columbia, Greenville, and Spartanburg, South Carolina; and Arlington, Chesterfield, and Henrico counties, Virginia. Of the 1835 C-store robberies that occurred during 1992 or 1993 in all selected areas (excluding Atlanta and Chicago), there were 12 homicides of C-store employees; 219 nonfatal injuries of C- store employees; 1071 robberies in which there were no injuries had a weapon was used, displayed, or implied toward a C-store employee; and 132 robberies in which there was no injury and no weapon used, but an employee was struck, pushed, or showed. Corresponding figures for the 238 robberies that occurred in Chicago during January to June 1993, and for which victim employment status was unknown (customer or employee) were three homicides, 53 nonfatal injuries, 120 attacks in which a weapon was used but there was no injury, and 57 attacks in which a person was struck, pushed, or showed but there was no injury. The proportion of robberies that resulted in a homicide or injury to an employee varied among selected areas from .03 to .25. The proportion of homicides and injuries in an employee was. 14 or higher for target areas in Baltimore (.24), Detroit (.25), and Virginia (.14); the proportion to an employee or customer was .24 in Chicago. The conclusions from these data are that the risk of employee injury in C-store robberies was high in selected metropolitan areas. This underscores the need for effective robbery prevention programs to reduce injury. In addition, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of present prevention programs in the C-store industry and the application of these programs to other retail industries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)714-720
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of occupational and environmental medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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