Enamel hypoplasias as indicators of developmental stress in pongids and hominids

R. B. Eckhardt, R. Protsch von Zieten

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15 Scopus citations


This paper reports the results from a study of enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous dentition of free-living Liberian chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). The entire study collection includes 280 specimens (278 skulls plus two unassociated mandibles), of which 70 are young enough to retain some decidous teeth. Among the subsample of infants, the total frequency of hypoplasia summed over all teeth in any individual reaches 80%, being expressed in the form of pits rather than transverse lines. Hypoplasia of a linear form was common in the permanent dentition, attaining a frequency of 46.7% on maxillary central incisors and 69.7% on mandibular canines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalHuman Evolution
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anthropology


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